Well nuts to them, that's what I say. If I can't be a part of their amazing revelations, I'll just obsess over something else instead. Jacob over at Television Without Pity seems to have a bee in his bonnet about the willingness of the Colonials to just execute every Cylon they come across. Yes, he argues, the Cylons did wipe out the Colonies, so a certain degree of rabid hatred is to be expected, but treating the Cylons as just machines instead of sentient entities in their own right is what got us here in the first place.
It's an excellent point, one of many excellent points Jacob includes in his re-caps (though re-cap might not be the right term, since many of them take longer to read than it would to re-watch the episode which they describe). On the other hand, though, there's a danger in assuming that the skin-jobs are exactly like us. I don't want to give too much away (some of my readers are still way behind on Galactica), but his reference to the unsanctioned shooting of a Cylon prisoner as "murder" seems to miss the point somewhat. How can it be murder if the victim is alive and unharmed hours later?
In fact, what exactly is it? If we take the assumption (which I think is what Jacob means) that we should consider a skin-job as having the right to be treated the same as any human under Colonial law, then what exactly is the specific crime committed by someone who shoots them in the chest?
Obviously, Colonial law is unlikely to be identical to British law, but one can imagine they would share many similarities. With that in mind, I decided to phone SpaceSquid Senior, expert in all things legal, and demand to know how we should prosecute. Since I can't tape a conversation over the phone, I instead wrote questions out in advance, put them to him, and then summarise the responses.
Q. What's the difference between assault, battery, actual bodily harm (ABH) and grievous bodily harm (GBH)?
A. Assault simply requires the victim is placed in fear of imminent attack (though you can get away with including a conditional: "I'd kill you if it wasn't a Sunday"). Battery goes into actual physical contact. ABH and GBH are gradations on that. ABH is getting into the realm of bruising and that sort of thing. By GBH you're into "malicious wounding", or "life-threatening".
Q. Do any of them have a requirement that the damage be lasting, or even that it takes a given amount of time for healing to take place?
A. Absolutely not. You can be entirely healed by the time someone is brought to trial, or even arrested, for the crime of damaging you.
Q. How would you prosecute or defend a trial in which someone had been killed, only to be reborn in an identical body 24 hours later?
A. Obviously were such a thing to be possible the law would be very quickly re-written, but in the first instance, as prosecutor I would argue that the crime was complete from the moment the victim died. Later events are irrelevant. I'd defend by questioning whether the victim could be considered to have died, any more than someone on life-support for twenty-four hours without the ability to beat their own heart can be considered dead. 
Based on this, then, it seems at least plausible that the prosecution would be leery of attempting to pin a murder charge on the perpetrator (my own opinion would be that it was very likely, but then this isn't my territory). On the other hand, GBH would definitely stick, since there's no requirement that the wounds be permanent, only that they reach a given level of seriousness. It is presumably unquestionable that a wound that ends up killing you is ipso facto life-threatening. SSS gave me five years as a ball-park figure for the punishment for GBH, maybe out in two and a half with good behaviour. This, then, would seem a reasonable punishment, under our current law, for killing a Cylon (meaning Jacob is entirely right that the character in question got off very lightly, but not so likely as he believes).
An important caveat to all that is that killing a Cylon outside of range of a resurrection facility would still be murder. Crucially, though, the law measures action, not intent, so whether or not the crime is described as murder depends on whether the victim is within range, not whether either victim or perpetrator believed themselves to be within range.
SSS did point out that a new law would be required for killing a Cylon whilst within resurrection range, something that lies between GBH and killing a person. I'm not so sure about the latter part. Certainly, shooting a Cylon in the back of the head seems less of a crime than, say, beating them to a pulp and leaving them to die only for them to be found and healed. A thorough examination of that point, though, would have to consider the difference between damage and suffering, and maybe some thought into the psychological after-effects of the various different hypothetical scenarios.
 Dad doesn't follow Galactica, but I suspect if he did he'd also point out that suicide is a mortal sin amongst the Cylons, and thus the fact that they are known to kill their current bodies to save themselves suffering means they cannot consider downloading to involve death at any stage.